Rotational action spectroscopy is an experimental method in which rotational spectra of molecules, typically in the microwave to sub-mm-wave domain of the electromagnetic spectrum (B1–1000 GHz), are recorded by action spectroscopy. Action spectroscopy means that the spectrum is recorded not by detecting the absorption of light by the molecules, but by the action of the light on the molecules, e.g., photon-induced dissociation of a chemical bond, a photon-triggered reaction, or photodetachment of an electron. Typically, such experiments are performed on molecular ions, which can be well controlled and mass-selected by guiding and storage techniques. Though coming with many advantages, the application of action schemes to rotational spectroscopy was hampered for a long time by the small energy content of a corresponding photon. Therefore, the first rotational action spectroscopic methods emerged only about one decade ago. Today, there exists a toolbox full of different rotational action spectroscopic schemes which are summarized in this review.